Assessment10 Items



1. What does the political cartoon below show?

a. Effects of a new law limiting immigration
b. The need for skilled immigrants to fill jobs created by the boom after the war
c. The desire of reformers to provide social services for European immigrants
d. The eagerness of the government to settle immigrants inland rater than the eastern industrial cities.

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2. Imagine that you are studying immigration to the United States. You have the following sources of information available to you.

a. A newspaper editorial the quota system that limited immigration
b. United States census data telling how many immigrants came from which countries
c. Journals written by immigrants

Identify one source from the list above that would probably help you understand why immigrants wanted to come to the United States. Explain why you chose that source.






3. Over the years, many people have immigrated to the United States. Give two reasons why people have come. Name a group of immigrants who came for each reason you have given.

a.



b.





4. Look at the cartoon below. What point is the cartoonist trying to make?




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5. How did immigration to the United States in the middle 1800s affect city life?

a. It led to a more equal distribution of wealth.
b. It led to the growth of slavery.
c. It led to urbanization.
d. It ended the reform movements.



6. You are writing a report about immigration in the 1800’s. You cannot find enough information in any of your social studies books. What other sources could you use to get information? Name three different primary sources.


a.

b.

c.



Questions 7 - 9

Historical Context:

The United States is a nation of immigrants. For a variety of reasons, groups of people from foreign lands left their native countries and relocated to the United States. Many of these immigrants faced hardships after they arrived in the United States.

Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the space provided.


Question 7






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7a. Based on this graph, identify two conditions in their native countries that caused immigrants to come to the United States.




7b. Based on this graph, identify one situation in the United States that led to an increase of immigrants coming into the nation.





8. This is part of an interview with Catherine Moran McNamara, an Irish immigrant, who arrived in the United States around 1900.


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Source: June Namias, First Generation: In the Words of Twentieth-Century American Immigrants, Beacon Press, 1978


Based on this document, state two reasons many Irish citizens immigrated to the United States around 1900.






9. With increased immigration in the mid-1800s, open hostility towards foreigners was expressed in the form of anti-immigration pamphlets such as this one, dated 1885.


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Based on this document, identify one reason many native-born Americans in the late 1800s were in favor of restricting immigration.







10. You are writing a report about immigration in the 1800’s. You cannot find enough information in any of your social studies books. What other sources could you use to get information? Name three different sources.





11. What drove many Irish immigrants to the United States?

a. The Great Irish Famine
b. The Know-Nothings
c. The labor movement
d. The temperance movement


12. Which of the following is a reason Irish immigrants were treated poorly?

a. Their skillfulness in farming
b. Their history of attacking America
c. Their poverty and willingness to work for low wages
d. Their skin color


13. Which of the following groups could be described as nativist?

a. Irish immigrants
b. German immigrants
c. Know-Nothings
d. Temperance reformers


14. What were the major differences between the Irish and German immigrants?

a. Irish were poor and Catholic while Germans were middle class and Protestant.
b. Irish were middle class and Protestant while Germans were poor and Catholic.
c. Irish were middle class and Catholic while Germans were poor and Protestant.
d. Irish were poor and Protestant while Germans were middle class and Catholic.


15. How did immigration to the United States in the middle 1800s affect city life?

a. It led to a more equal distribution of wealth.
b. It led to the growth of slavery.
c. It led to urbanization.
d. It ended the reform movements.


16. Which of the following characterizes the federal government in the late 1800s?

a. Government officials worked hard to improve the lives of the poor
b. Government officials were often involved in profitable scandals
c. Government officials were quiet, dutiful servants to their voters
d. Government officials were constantly thrown in jail for corruption charges


17. Over the years, many people have immigrated to the United States. Give two reasons why people have come. Name a group of immigrants who came for each reason you have given.






18 & 19.


18. Look at the diagrams below. Identify three important changes in the pattern of immigration to the U.S. from 1854 to 1907.




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19. Explain why one of the changes you identified above happened.





(Regents US History grade 8)




Question 20



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20. According to Mother Jones, what was one situation faced by children in the workplace in the late 1800’s.



Question 21


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21. According to Stephen Currie, what was one reason that ending child labor was difficult to achieve nationally?






22. Based on the documents below, state two trends related to industrialization between 1861 and 1920.


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Question 23



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23. Look at the picture above. Why do you think that many towns were located near streams and rivers like Salmon Brook? Give two reasons.







24. Throughout the early to mid-1800’s, the Lowell factory system primarily employed

A) married women
B) married men
C) single women
D) single men


25. What was a major effect of the introduction of the cotton gin?

A) A decline in the southern slave population
B) A decline in the size of southern farms
C) An increase in cotton production
D) An increase in the import of manufactured goods



26. Explain how the Cotton Mill changed people’s lives in the United States.










NAEP



27. A major weapon unions have used in their struggles against factory owners is the

A) lockout
B) strike
C) voter registration drive
D) party convention



28. How did many factory owners react to the formation of unions in the 1800's and early 1900's? Identify two reactions and be as specific as possible.

1.



2.







Question 29



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29. Based on the documents above, state two ways industrialization affected workers.



1.




2.




Regents High School



30. In passing the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), Congress intended to

a. prevent large corporations from eliminating their competition
b. distinguish good trusts from bad trusts
c. regulate rates charged by railroads
d. force large trusts to bargain with labor unions


31. A high protective tariff passed by Congress is intended to affect the United States economy by

a. promoting free trade
b. limiting industrial jobs
c. encouraging American manufacturing
d. expanding global interdependence


32. In the early 1900s, Progressive Era reformers sought to increase citizen participation in government by supporting the

a. expansion of the spoils system
b. direct election of senators
c. creation of the electoral college
d. formation of the Federal Reserve system


NAEP 4th grade questions.



32. Imagine that you want to learn about what everyday life was like 100 years ago in the place where you live.

Choose ONE of the items on the list below and circle it. Tell what information you could get from that item that would help you.

a. a map of the place from 100 years ago
b. a diary or journal from 100 years ago
c. a local newspaper from 100 years ago
d. an encyclopedia printed this year
e. a cemetery













33. When workers strike against the company they work for, they refuse to work for a 
period of time.

Give two reasons why people go on strike. Be specific in your answer.








Question 34:


"Land! Land!" came the joyous shout.

"America! We're in America!" cried my mother, almost crushing us in her happiness.

Everyone crowded and pushed on deck. They strained and stretched to get the first glimpse of the "golden country," lifting their children on their shoulders that they might see beyond them.

Men fell on their knees to pray. Women hugged their babies and wept. Children danced. Strangers hugged and kissed like old friends. Old men and women had in their eyes a look of young people in love.

Age-old visions sang themselves in me—songs of freedom of an oppressed people.

America! America!


34a. Who probably said this?

a. a Spanish explorer
b. an African slave
c. a European immigrant
d. a Mexican farm worker


34b. Give TWO reasons why the people described in the passage might have wanted to come to America.








35. What has been the main purpose of labor unions?

a. To protect the jobs and interests of workers
b. To help pioneers settle in the West
c. To help people move to other countries
d. To end slavery for African Americans


36. What is the main reason that some families allowed their young children to work in factories?

a. The families thought their children should learn to save money.
b. Many families wanted children to work in factories so adults could stay on farms.
c. The families needed the money their children would earn.
d. Children were treated better at factories than at schools.




Question 37




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37. What best describes this monument?

a. For many Americans, it has been a symbol of the power of the President.
b. For many people moving west in covered wagons, it has been a symbol of bravery.
c. For many soldiers, it has been a symbol of the United States Army.
d. For many immigrants, it has been a symbol of the freedom they hoped to find
in the United States.

38. When workers strike against the company they work for, they refuse to work for a 
period of time. Give two reasons why people go on strike. Be specific in your answer.

39. One of the earliest labor unions was known as the
A. Knights of Labor
B. AFL-CIO
C. Third Worker's International
D. United States Chamber of Commerce


40. A major weapon unions have used in their struggles against factory owners is the

A. lockout
B. strike
C. voter registration drive
D. party convention

41. How did many factory owners react to the formation of unions in the 1800's and early 1900's? Identify two reactions and be as specific as possible.


42. What has been the main purpose of labor unions?

A. To protect the jobs and interests of workers
B. To help pioneers settle in the West
C. To help people move to other countries
D. To end slavery for African Americans

43. Many people opposed ratification of the Constitution without a bill of rights because they

a. were afraid the states would be too powerful without a bill of rights
b. thought that a bill of rights would strengthen the President's power
c. did not want the national government to have an army
d. feared that the new national government would deny people their rights

44. What is the purpose of the Bill of Rights?

a. To say how much Americans should pay in taxes
b. To protect freedoms like freedom of speech
c. To describe the jobs of the President and Congress
d. To make Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States


45. What is one of the basic purposes of government in the United States?

a. To protect the rights of individuals
b. To have fire drills in public buildings
c. To elect a new President every four years
d. To keep criminals in federal prisons


46.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

46. According to the passage, the most important purpose of government is to protect

a. people from harm
b. the church
c. the truth
d. people's rights


47.

In your town, some of the citizens want to remove certain books from the public library because they think the books contain material that is harmful for children to read. Other citizens in the town want to keep the books in the library.

47. What argument could be used to defend the opinion that the books should be kept in the library?

A. Democracy depends on the free expression of many different opinions.
B. Democracy depends on allowing communities to vote on what can be read.
C. Democracy depends on the smartest people deciding what books should be read.
D. Democracy depends on limiting access to books.


48. What are both citizens and noncitizens legally entitled to in the United States?

A. To run for public office
B. To have a United States passport
C. To have the protection of our laws
D. To vote in primary elections


49 --

Questions 49 refer to the Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution below. You may refer to the Bill of Rights as you answer the questions, but you do not need to read it before you read the questions.
AMENDMENT 1. RELIGION, SPEECH, ASSEMBLY, PETITION
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
AMENDMENT 2. RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
AMENDMENT 3. QUARTERING OF SOLDIERS
No Soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
AMENDMENT 4. SEARCHES AND SEIZURES
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
AMENDMENT 5. GRAND JURIES, DOUBLE JEOPARDY, SELF-INCRIMINATION, DUE PROCESS, EMINENT DOMAIN
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
AMENDMENT 6. CRIMINAL COURT PROCEDURES
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
AMENDMENT 7. TRIAL BY JURY IN COMMON-LAW CASES
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
AMENDMENT 8. BAILS, FINES, AND PUNISHMENT
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
AMENDMENT 9. RIGHTS RETAINED BY THE PEOPLE
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
AMENDMENT 10. RIGHTS RESERVED TO THE STATES
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

49. As a whole, the Bill of Rights mostly addresses the rights of

A. states
B. individuals
C. cities
D. public officials

50.
Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities . . . may be equal, deprive children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe that it does.

To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely on the basis of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status and community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely to ever be undone. . . . Whatever may have been the extent of psychological knowledge at the time of Plessy v. Ferguson, this finding is amply supported by modern authority. Any language in Plessy v. Ferguson contrary to this finding is rejected.
We conclude that in the field of public education, the doctrine of separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.

50. Which part of the United States Constitution did the Court most likely use to support its decision?

A. Article 4
B. The Tenth Amendment
C. The Thirteenth Amendment
D. The Fourteenth Amendment

51.

According to the European theory, men are divided into classes—some to toil and earn, others to seize and enjoy. According to the Massachusetts theory, all are to have an equal chance for earning. Vast and overshadowing private fortunes are among the greatest dangers to which the happiness of the people in a republic can be subjected.
The main idea set forth in the creeds of some political reformers, or revolutionizers, is, that some people are poor because others are rich. This idea supposes a fixed amount of property in the community, which, by fraud or force, or arbitrary law, is unequally divided among men. But education creates or develops new treasures, treasures not before possessed or dreamed of by anyone.

51. The passage implies that poor people will improve their lives through

A. violent revolution
B. nonviolent resistance
C. studying and learning
D. union organization


52. Who was the Fourteenth Amendment designed to protect?

A. Women
B. Urban laborers
C. Former slaves
D. Entrepreneurs


53.

According to the European theory, men are divided into classes—some to toil and earn, others to seize and enjoy. According to the Massachusetts theory, all are to have an equal chance for earning. Vast and overshadowing private fortunes are among the greatest dangers to which the happiness of the people in a republic can be subjected.
The main idea set forth in the creeds of some political reformers, or revolutionizers, is, that some people are poor because others are rich. This idea supposes a fixed amount of property in the community, which, by fraud or force, or arbitrary law, is unequally divided among men. But education creates or develops new treasures, treasures not before possessed or dreamed of by anyone.

53. Mann suggests that universal public education can prevent the

A. accumulation of private wealth
B. formation of a rigid and permanent class system
C. need for public charity
D. formation of stable republican government


54. The United States issued the Open Door policy (1899–1900) primarily to

A. bring democratic government to the Chinese people
B. secure equal trade opportunities in China
C. force China to change its immigration policies
D. use China as a stepping stone to trade with Japan

55. In the 1850s, the phrase “Bleeding Kansas” was used to describe clashes between

A. proslavery and antislavery groups
B. Spanish landowners and new American settlers
C. Chinese and Irish railroad workers
D. Native American Indians and white settlers









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