Assessment11_Items_Background



Assessment11 BAY3 Items



Read this passage before answering questions 1-3.
America is . . . the great Melting Pot! Here you stand, good folk, think I, when I see them at Ellis Island, here you stand in your fifty groups, with your fifty languages and histories, and your fifty blood hatreds and rivalries. But you won’t be long like that, brothers. . . . Into the Crucible with you all! God is making the American.
—Israel Zangwill, The Melting Pot, 1908



1. Define what is meant by the term "melting pot" as it is used in the Zangwill quotation.



2. Do you think that the term "melting pot" is an appropriate one to describe the United States? Give one reason to support your answer.

Description: Define the term "melting pot" and argue if it is an appropriate term to describe the US
Grade: 8
Year: 2010
Block & Number: Block C7 Question #11
Type of Question: Short Constructed Response
Difficulty: Hard (20.97% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Foundations of American System
Cognitive Domain:
Evaluate, Take, Defend


3. Which of the following phenomena does the passage celebrate?
a. Assimilation
b. Repatriation
c. Separatism
d. Communalism

The correct answer is A.

4. The photograph was taken in the United States in 1908. Why would it be unusual to see something like this today?
a. Nobody wants to hire workers who have not been to college.
b. There are laws against using children to work in factories.
c. Very few people work in factories in the United States today.
d. Manufacturers think the minimum wage is too much to pay children.

Description: Understand that child labor is against the law
Grade: 8
Year: 2010
Block & Number: Block C7 Question #17
Type of Question: Multiple Choice
Difficulty: Easy (84.23% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Govt Embodiment Amer Democracy
Cognitive Domain:
Explaining and Analyzing


5. What is one important reason why children were permitted by the government to work in factories in 1908?

a. Many people thought the government should not tell factory owners how to run their businesses.
b. Children could read and write better than their parents.
c. Legislators believed that factory work was an important part of children’s education.
d. Children were supposed to work until they were fifteen years old.

Description: Understand why child labor was legal in 1908
Grade: 8
Year: 2010
Block & Number: Block C7 Question #18
Type of Question: Multiple Choice
Difficulty: Hard (34.83% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Foundations of American System
Cognitive Domain:
Explaining and Analyzing



6. The United States is a big country with many people. The people of the United States come from many backgrounds. Some of us were born here. Some of us were born in other countries. But, as Americans, we share many important things. Give two reasons why the United States benefits from having people from many different countries and backgrounds.


Description: Explain why the U.S. benefits from having people from diverse countries and backgrounds
Grade: 4
Year: 2010
Block & Number: Block C4 Question #9
Type of Question: Short Constructed Response
Difficulty: Hard (11.97% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Foundations of American System
Cognitive Domain:
Explaining and Analyzing


7. Give two specific examples of how the women’s rights movement has affected women’s lives or changed society.
Description: Give two examples of the effects of the women's rights movement
Grade: 8
Year: 2010
Block & Number: Block C9 Question #15
Type of Question: Short Constructed Response
Difficulty: Medium (56.51% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Foundations of American System
Cognitive Domain:
Evaluate, Take, Defend
Questions 8 - 9 are based on the passage below.

Before answering questions 8 and 9, read the passage below.

We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. . . . Resolved, that all laws which prevent women from occupying such a station in society as her conscience shall dictate, or which place her in a position inferior to that of man, are contrary to the great precept of nature, and therefore of no force or authority.
—Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions, July 19-20, 1848
8. What is the main point made in the passage?
a. Men and women should be treated equally.
b. Men’s and women’s roles in society are somewhat different.
c. Women are entitled to special legal protections.
d. Women played an important role in the founding of the United States.


Description: Identify main point of Seneca Falls Declaration
Grade: 8
Year: 2010
Block & Number: Block C8 Question #3
Type of Question: Multiple Choice
Difficulty: Easy (86.82% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Foundations of American System
Cognitive Domain:
Explaining and Analyzing

The correct answer is A.


9. The people who wrote the passage were most likely.
a. government officials explaining a government policy
b. journalists criticizing the federal government.
c. candidates campaigning for public office.
d. citizens trying to change laws they believed were unfair.

The correct answer is D.

Question Information
Description: Identify the authors of Seneca Falls Declaration
Grade: 8
Year: 2010
Block & Number: Block C8 Question #4
Type of Question: Multiple Choice
Difficulty: Medium (51.86% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Roles of Citizens
Cognitive Domain:
Evaluate, Take, Defend

Questions 10 - 11 are about the privileges and responsibilities of United States citizens.

10. In the space below, list two privileges that United States citizens have that noncitizens do not.
1)

2)

Examples of possible credited responses:
- Voting in state and national elections/suffrage
- Serving on juries

Description: List two privileges of U.S. citizens
Grade: 12
Year: 2010
Block & Number: Block C4 Question #13
Type of Question: Short Constructed Response
Difficulty: Medium (44.18% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Roles of Citizens
Cognitive Domain:
Explaining and Analyzing

11. In the space below, list two of the responsibilities of United States citizens.
1)

2)

Examples of possible credited responses:
- Obeying the law
- Registering to vote and voting knowledgeably

Description: List two responsibilities of US citizens
Grade: 12
Year: 2010
Block & Number: Block C4 Question #14
Type of Question: Short Constructed Response
Difficulty: Easy (66.8% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Roles of Citizens
Cognitive Domain:
Explaining and Analyzing


12.Look at the form. Who is responsible for the registration of voters in this state?
a. The United States Federal Election Commissioner.
b. Officials of the New Jersey Election Commission.
c. Registration commissioners from the county governments.
d. Local mayors and city managers

Description: Understand responsibility for registration of votes at state level
Grade: 12
Year: 2010
Block & Number: Block C6 Question #1
Type of Question: Multiple Choice
Difficulty: Medium (45.48% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Roles of Citizens
Cognitive Domain:
Identifying/Describing

13. To register to vote in this state, a person must
a. own a home in the state
b. be over 21 years old
c. have a valid address and telephone number
d. have lived in the state for the past 30 days or more

The correct answer is D.

14.In the United States, you have to be a citizen in order to
a. drive a car
b. own a business
c. vote in a presidential election
d. write letters to newspaper editors

The correct answer is C.

Description: Understands only citizens can vote
Grade: 4
Year: 2006
Block & Number: Block C3 Question #1
Type of Question: Multiple Choice
Difficulty: Easy (74.57% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Roles of Citizens
Cognitive Domain:
Identifying/Describing

The poem below by Emma Lazarus is engraved on the Statue of Liberty, which was dedicated in 1886. The cartoon below was printed in 1992.
"Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning
to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your
teeming shore. Send these,
the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"


BAY3_Item15_Liberty.jpg

15.What comment is the cartoon making about changes that have occurred in the United States between the 1880's and the 1990's?

Description: Interpret political cartoon on changes in immigration
Grade: 12
Year: 2010
Block & Number: Block C6 Question #15
Type of Question: Short Constructed Response

Difficulty: Hard (20.12% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Foundations of American System
Cognitive Domain:
Explaining and Analyzing

Complete

The response explains that the cartoon is suggesting that many Americans have (since the 1880's) lost the sense of America as a place for refugees and immigrants
OR
that immigrants from some places are more welcome than some from other places. There is a clear understanding of change over time indicated by words such as "then" and "now."


16.Treating people unfairly because of their sex, race, or religion is called
  1. a. disability
  2. b. discrimination
  3. c. representation
  4. d. equal rights

The correct answer is B.


Question 17 refers to the passage and the list below.

After a class discussion, Ms. Díaz asked her class to explain the meaning of 
the word "responsibility" in a democracy. Students agreed that "responsibility" 
is a duty or obligation to do something or not to do something. The class listed 
responsibilities of citizenship. Here is their list:

Respecting laws and rules
Voting
Paying taxes
Being informed about our elected leaders
Telling public officials about our concerns

17.Choose one responsibility of citizenship in a democracy from the list of 
political responsibilities and fill in the oval next to it. Now tell why the 
responsibility you chose is important.

Description: Explains citizenship has responsibilities
Grade: 4
Year: 2006
Block & Number: Block C3 Question #5
Type of Question: Short Constructed Response
Difficulty: Medium (45.57% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Roles of Citizens
Cognitive Domain:
Evaluate, Take, Defend
Score & Description
COMPLETE
The response correctly identifies a political responsibility and gives an appropriate reason for its importance (e.g., "People should pay taxes because it's the law and the government needs money to run the country"). Reason may be expressed as an example of a broader idea (e.g., "Request laws and rules so people can stop the killing and shooting"; "otherwise there would be a lot of crime.")
PARTIAL
The response correctly identifies a political responsibility, but the reasons for its importance are somewhat off-target or vague (e.g., "People should respect laws and rules because they're good for society," "society would be messed up," "there would be chaos," "it wouldn't be fair"), or because they lack a community perspective (e.g., "People should pay taxes so they don't go to jail").
UNACCEPTABLE
The response does not identify a political responsibility OR response identifies a political responsibility, but does not explain its importance.
Description: Explains citizenship has responsibilities
Grade: 4
Year: 2006
Block & Number: Block C3 Question #5
Type of Question: Short Constructed Response
Difficulty: Medium (45.57% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Roles of Citizens
Cognitive Domain:
Evaluate, Take, Defend

COMPLETE
The response correctly identifies a political responsibility and gives an appropriate reason for its importance (e.g., "People should pay taxes because it's the law and the government needs money to run the country"). Reason may be expressed as an example of a broader idea (e.g., "Request laws and rules so people can stop the killing and shooting"; "otherwise there would be a lot of crime.")

18.Imagine that you are studying the restriction of immigration to the United States in the 1920's. You have the following sources of information available to you.

19.A 1924 newspaper editorial supporting the quota system that limited immigration 


a. The text of the 1924 Immigration Act (or the National Origins Act) 

b. The text of a speech made at a Ku Klux Klan rally in 1923 

c. A Russian woman's account of her experiences during the Russian Civil War and her escape to the United States in 1922 

d. A 1924 magazine editorial opposing the quota system that limited immigration 

e. The story of a Greek family's journey to the United States in 1906 written by a journalist in 1955 

f. The 1910, 1920, and 1930 United States census data telling how many immigrants came from which countries


Identify one source that would probably help you understand why immigrants wanted to come to the United States. Explain why you chose that source.

Description: Understands definition of discrimination
Grade: 4
Year: 2006
Block & Number: Block C3 Question #3
Type of Question: Multiple Choice
Difficulty: Medium (55.76% Correct)
Content Classification:
Content Area:
Foundations of American System
Cognitive Domain:
Identifying/Describing

20.Which of the following kinds of organizations would most likely be involved in protecting peoples’ right to have a safe workplace?

a. A political party
b. A parent-teacher association
c. A labor union
d. A charity

21.Progressive Era writers such as Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell, and Lincoln Steffens were known as "muckrakers" because they
a. engaged in questionable "yellow journalism" that had a negative effect on United States foreign policy
b. defended the interests of agricultural workers against those of the urban working classes
c. exposed serious political and social problems to public view
d. inflamed popular feelings against recent immigrants and led the government to pass restrictive quotas
The correct answer is C.

Description: Why were some Progressive Era writers called muckrakers?
Grade: 12
Year: 2010
Block & Number: Block H6 Question #9
Type of Question: Multiple Choice
Difficulty: Medium (48.41% Correct)
Content Classification:
Historical Theme:
Gathering of Peoples, Cultures, Ideas
Cognitive Level:
Historical Knowledge and Perspective


22. Which statement best expresses the melting pot theory as it relates to American society?
a. Only European immigrants will be allowed into the United States.
b. All immigrant groups will maintain their separate cultures.
c. Different cultures will blend to form a uniquely American culture.
d. Immigrant ghettos will develop in urban areas.

Regents, 2010: # 17

23. Which government action is most closely associated with the efforts of muckrakers?
a. ratification of the woman’s suffrage amendment
b. approval of the graduated income tax
c. creation of the National Forest Service
d. passage of the Meat Inspection Act

Regents, 2010: # 20


24. In the early 1900s, Progressive Era reformers sought to increase citizen participation in government by supporting the
a. expansion of the spoils system
b. direct election of senators
c. creation of the electoral college
d. formation of the Federal Reserve system

Regents, 2010: #21


25. In the mid-1920s, the immigration policy of the United States was mainly designed to
a. deport illegal immigrants
b. continue the traditional policy of open immigration
c. establish quotas for immigrants from certain nations
d. favor immigrants from southern and eastern Europe
Regents, 2010: # 26



26. The contributions of Langston Hughes and Duke Ellington illustrate the importance of the Harlem Renaissance to
a. economic growth
b. educational reform
c. the creative arts
d. political leadership


DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
This question is based on the accompanying documents 1-4 below. The question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. Some of the documents have been edited for the purposes of the question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each document and any point of view that may be presented in the document.

Historical Context:
Reform movements developed during the 19th century and early 20th century to address specific problems. These included the women’s rights movement, the temperance movement, and the movement to end child labor. These movements met with varying degrees of success.

27. Task: Using information from the documents and your knowledge of United States history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to the questions will help you write the Part B essay, in which you will be asked to choose two reform movements mentioned in the historical context and for each • Describe the problems that led to the development of the movement • Discuss the extent to which the movement was successful in achieving its goals.

Regents, 2010


To answer question 28 below, Analyze document 1 below and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the space provided.


Document 1

Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell signed this document before they were married in 1855. They were protesting laws in which women lost their legal existence upon marriage.

While acknowledging our mutual affection by publicly assuming the relationship of husband and wife, yet in justice to ourselves and a great principle, we deem it a duty to declare that this act on our part implies no sanction of, nor promise of voluntary obedience to such of the present laws of marriage, as refuse to recognize the wife as an independent, rational being, while they confer upon the husband an injurious [harmful] and unnatural superiority, investing him with legal powers which no honorable man would exercize [exercise], and which no man should possess. We protest especially against the laws which give to the husband:
1. The custody of the wife’s person.
2. The exclusive control and guardianship of their children.
3. The sole ownership of her personal [property], and use of her real estate, unless previously settled upon her, or placed in the hands of trustees, as in the case of minors, lunatics, and idiots.
4. The absolute right to the product of her industry [work].
5. Also against laws which give to the widower so much larger and more permanent an interest in the property of his deceased wife, than they give to the widow in that of the deceased husband.
6. Finally,against he whole system by which “the legal existence of the wife issus pended during marriage,” so that in most States, she neither has a legal part in the choice of her residence, nor can she make a will, nor sue or be sued in her own name, nor inherit property. . . .
Source: Laura A. Otten, “Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell: Marriage Protest,” Women’s Rights and the Law, Praeger, 1993



28. According to this document, what were two rights denied to women in 1855?


To answer question 29 below, read document 2 below.



Document 2
. . The woman ballot will not revolutionize the world. Its results in Colorado, for example, might have been anticipated. First, it did give women better wages for equal work; second, it led immediately to a number of laws the women wanted, and the first laws they demanded were laws for the protection of the children of the State, making it a misdemeanor to contribute to the delinquency of a child; laws for the improved care of defective children; also, the Juvenile Court for the conservation of wayward boys and girls; the better care of the insane, the deaf, the dumb [unable to speak], the blind; the curfew bell to keep children off the streets at night; raising the age of consent for girls; improving the reformatories and prisons of the State; improving the hospital service of the State; improving the sanitary laws, affecting the health of the homes of the State. Their [women’s] interest in the public health is a matter of great importance. Above all, there resulted laws for improving the school system. . . .



29. According to Senator Robert L. Owen, what were two effects of the women’s rights movement in Colorado?

To answer question 30, read document 3 below.


Document 3
. . . The winning of female suffrage did not mark the end of prejudice and discrimination against women in public life. Women still lacked equal access with men to those professions, especially the law, which provide the chief routes to political power. Further, when women ran for office—and many did in the immediate post-suffrage era—they often lacked major party backing, hard to come by for any newcomer but for women almost impossible unless she belonged to a prominent political family. Even if successful in winning backing, when women ran for office they usually had to oppose incumbents [those in office]. When, as was often the case, they lost their first attempts, their reputation as “losers” made re-endorsement impossible. . . .



30. According to Elisabeth Perry, what was one way in which women’s participation in public life continued to be limited after winning suffrage?


To answer question 27, read document 4 below



Document 4
. . . Little girls and boys, barefooted, walked up and down between the endless rows of spindles, reaching thin little hands into the machinery to repair snapped threads. They crawled under machinery to oil it. They replaced spindles all day long, all day long; night through, night through. Tiny babies of six years old with faces of sixty did an eight-hour shift for ten cents a day. If they fell asleep, cold water was dashed in their faces, and the voice of the manager yelled above the ceaseless racket and whir of the machines.
Toddling chaps of four years old were brought to the mills to “help” the older sister or brother of ten years but their labor was not paid.
The machines, built in the north, were built low for the hands of little children.
At five-thirty in the morning, long lines of little grey children came out of the early dawn into the factory, into the maddening noise, into the lint filled rooms. Outside the birds sang and the blue sky shone. At the lunch half-hour, the children would fall to sleep over their lunch of cornbread and fat pork. They would lie on the bare floor and sleep. Sleep was their recreation, their release, as play is to the free child. The boss would come along and shake them awake. After the lunch period, the hour-in grind, the ceaseless running up and down between the whirring spindles. Babies, tiny children! . . .
Source: Mother Jones, Autobiography of Mother Jones, Arno Press



31. Which of the following is a legal requirement of all United States citizens?
a. to provide aid to the poor
b. to vote in federal elections
c. to serve on a jury if called
d. to work for the community

Curriculum Framework Learning Standard for Item 4
HS.USI.19 Explain the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and describe how a democracy provides opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process through elections, political parties, and interest groups. (H, C)
MCAS, 2007, 10-11: # 4

32. Progressive Era authors such as Jacob Riis and Upton Sinclair are best known for
a. focusing attention on social conditions
b. fighting for the civil rights of African Americans
c. promoting the interests of the American farmer
d. supporting the goal of woman’s suffrage

Regents, # 22


33. In the period 1890–1915, all of the following were generally true about African Americans EXCEPT:
a. Voting rights previously gained were denied through changes in state laws and constitutions.
b. Back-to-Africa movements were widely popular among African Americans in urban areas.
c. African American leaders disagreed on the principal strategy for attaining equal rights.
d. Numerous African Americans were lynched, and mob attacks on African American individuals occurred in both the North and the South.
e. African Americans from the rural South migrated to both southern and northern cities.

http://ap_history_online.tripod.com/apushtest1.htm

34. Which of the following statements about woman suffrage is true?
a. The six states of New England were the first to have complete woman suffrage.
b. Woman suffrage was introduced into the South during Radical Reconstruction.
c. No state granted woman suffrage before 1900.
d. The only states with complete woman suffrage before 1900 were west of the Mississippi.
e. California and Oregon were the first states to have complete woman suffrage.

34. Which of the following best describes the Harlem Renaissance?
a. The rehabilitation of a decaying urban area
b. An outpouring of Black artistic and literary creativity
c. The beginning of the NAACP
d. The most famous art show of the early twentieth century
e. The establishment of the back-to-Africa movement







Assessment10 BAY2 Items


1. What does the political cartoon below show?

a. Effects of a new law limiting immigration
b. The need for skilled immigrants to fill jobs created by the boom after the war
c. The desire of reformers to provide social services for European immigrants
d. The eagerness of the government to settle immigrants inland rater than the eastern industrial cities.

assessment10_q1.jpg





2. Imagine that you are studying immigration to the United States. You have the following sources of information available to you.

a. A newspaper editorial the quota system that limited immigration
b. United States census data telling how many immigrants came from which countries
c. Journals written by immigrants

Identify one source from the list above that would probably help you understand why immigrants wanted to come to the United States. Explain why you chose that source.






3. Over the years, many people have immigrated to the United States. Give two reasons why people have come. Name a group of immigrants who came for each reason you have given.

a.



b.





4. Look at the cartoon below. What point is the cartoonist trying to make?




assessment10_q4.jpg






5. How did immigration to the United States in the middle 1800s affect city life?

a. It led to a more equal distribution of wealth.
b. It led to the growth of slavery.
c. It led to urbanization.
d. It ended the reform movements.



6. You are writing a report about immigration in the 1800’s. You cannot find enough information in any of your social studies books. What other sources could you use to get information? Name three different primary sources.


a.

b.

c.



Questions 7 - 9

Historical Context:

The United States is a nation of immigrants. For a variety of reasons, groups of people from foreign lands left their native countries and relocated to the United States. Many of these immigrants faced hardships after they arrived in the United States.

Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the space provided.


Question 7






assessment10_q7.jpg

7a. Based on this graph, identify two conditions in their native countries that caused immigrants to come to the United States.




7b. Based on this graph, identify one situation in the United States that led to an increase of immigrants coming into the nation.





8. This is part of an interview with Catherine Moran McNamara, an Irish immigrant, who arrived in the United States around 1900.


assessment10_q8.jpg

Source: June Namias, First Generation: In the Words of Twentieth-Century American Immigrants, Beacon Press, 1978


Based on this document, state two reasons many Irish citizens immigrated to the United States around 1900.






9. With increased immigration in the mid-1800s, open hostility towards foreigners was expressed in the form of anti-immigration pamphlets such as this one, dated 1885.


assessment10_q9.jpg


Based on this document, identify one reason many native-born Americans in the late 1800s were in favor of restricting immigration.







10. You are writing a report about immigration in the 1800’s. You cannot find enough information in any of your social studies books. What other sources could you use to get information? Name three different sources.





11. What drove many Irish immigrants to the United States?

a. The Great Irish Famine
b. The Know-Nothings
c. The labor movement
d. The temperance movement


12. Which of the following is a reason Irish immigrants were treated poorly?

a. Their skillfulness in farming
b. Their history of attacking America
c. Their poverty and willingness to work for low wages
d. Their skin color


13. Which of the following groups could be described as nativist?

a. Irish immigrants
b. German immigrants
c. Know-Nothings
d. Temperance reformers


14. What were the major differences between the Irish and German immigrants?

a. Irish were poor and Catholic while Germans were middle class and Protestant.
b. Irish were middle class and Protestant while Germans were poor and Catholic.
c. Irish were middle class and Catholic while Germans were poor and Protestant.
d. Irish were poor and Protestant while Germans were middle class and Catholic.


15. How did immigration to the United States in the middle 1800s affect city life?

a. It led to a more equal distribution of wealth.
b. It led to the growth of slavery.
c. It led to urbanization.
d. It ended the reform movements.


16. Which of the following characterizes the federal government in the late 1800s?

a. Government officials worked hard to improve the lives of the poor
b. Government officials were often involved in profitable scandals
c. Government officials were quiet, dutiful servants to their voters
d. Government officials were constantly thrown in jail for corruption charges


17. Over the years, many people have immigrated to the United States. Give two reasons why people have come. Name a group of immigrants who came for each reason you have given.






18 & 19.


18. Look at the diagrams below. Identify three important changes in the pattern of immigration to the U.S. from 1854 to 1907.




assessment10_q19.jpg







19. Explain why one of the changes you identified above happened.





(Regents US History grade 8)




Question 20



assessment10_q20.jpg



20. According to Mother Jones, what was one situation faced by children in the workplace in the late 1800’s.



Question 21


assessment10_q21.jpg







21. According to Stephen Currie, what was one reason that ending child labor was difficult to achieve nationally?






22. Based on the documents below, state two trends related to industrialization between 1861 and 1920.


assessment10_q22.jpg







Question 23



assessment10_q23.jpg






23. Look at the picture above. Why do you think that many towns were located near streams and rivers like Salmon Brook? Give two reasons.







24. Throughout the early to mid-1800’s, the Lowell factory system primarily employed

A) married women
B) married men
C) single women
D) single men


25. What was a major effect of the introduction of the cotton gin?

A) A decline in the southern slave population
B) A decline in the size of southern farms
C) An increase in cotton production
D) An increase in the import of manufactured goods



26. Explain how the Cotton Mill changed people’s lives in the United States.










NAEP



27. A major weapon unions have used in their struggles against factory owners is the

A) lockout
B) strike
C) voter registration drive
D) party convention



28. How did many factory owners react to the formation of unions in the 1800's and early 1900's? Identify two reactions and be as specific as possible.

1.



2.







Question 29



assessment10_q29.jpg


29. Based on the documents above, state two ways industrialization affected workers.



1.




2.




Regents High School



30. In passing the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), Congress intended to

a. prevent large corporations from eliminating their competition
b. distinguish good trusts from bad trusts
c. regulate rates charged by railroads
d. force large trusts to bargain with labor unions


31. A high protective tariff passed by Congress is intended to affect the United States economy by

a. promoting free trade
b. limiting industrial jobs
c. encouraging American manufacturing
d. expanding global interdependence


32. In the early 1900s, Progressive Era reformers sought to increase citizen participation in government by supporting the

a. expansion of the spoils system
b. direct election of senators
c. creation of the electoral college
d. formation of the Federal Reserve system


NAEP 4th grade questions.



32. Imagine that you want to learn about what everyday life was like 100 years ago in the place where you live.

Choose ONE of the items on the list below and circle it. Tell what information you could get from that item that would help you.

a. a map of the place from 100 years ago
b. a diary or journal from 100 years ago
c. a local newspaper from 100 years ago
d. an encyclopedia printed this year
e. a cemetery













33. When workers strike against the company they work for, they refuse to work for a 
period of time.

Give two reasons why people go on strike. Be specific in your answer.








Question 34:


"Land! Land!" came the joyous shout.

"America! We're in America!" cried my mother, almost crushing us in her happiness.

Everyone crowded and pushed on deck. They strained and stretched to get the first glimpse of the "golden country," lifting their children on their shoulders that they might see beyond them.

Men fell on their knees to pray. Women hugged their babies and wept. Children danced. Strangers hugged and kissed like old friends. Old men and women had in their eyes a look of young people in love.

Age-old visions sang themselves in me—songs of freedom of an oppressed people.

America! America!


34a. Who probably said this?

a. a Spanish explorer
b. an African slave
c. a European immigrant
d. a Mexican farm worker


34b. Give TWO reasons why the people described in the passage might have wanted to come to America.








35. What has been the main purpose of labor unions?

a. To protect the jobs and interests of workers
b. To help pioneers settle in the West
c. To help people move to other countries
d. To end slavery for African Americans


36. What is the main reason that some families allowed their young children to work in factories?

a. The families thought their children should learn to save money.
b. Many families wanted children to work in factories so adults could stay on farms.
c. The families needed the money their children would earn.
d. Children were treated better at factories than at schools.




Question 37




assessment10_q37v1.jpg





37. What best describes this monument?

a. For many Americans, it has been a symbol of the power of the President.
b. For many people moving west in covered wagons, it has been a symbol of bravery.
c. For many soldiers, it has been a symbol of the United States Army.
d. For many immigrants, it has been a symbol of the freedom they hoped to find
in the United States.

38. When workers strike against the company they work for, they refuse to work for a 
period of time. Give two reasons why people go on strike. Be specific in your answer.

39. One of the earliest labor unions was known as the
A. Knights of Labor
B. AFL-CIO
C. Third Worker's International
D. United States Chamber of Commerce


40. A major weapon unions have used in their struggles against factory owners is the

A. lockout
B. strike
C. voter registration drive
D. party convention

41. How did many factory owners react to the formation of unions in the 1800's and early 1900's? Identify two reactions and be as specific as possible.


42. What has been the main purpose of labor unions?

A. To protect the jobs and interests of workers
B. To help pioneers settle in the West
C. To help people move to other countries
D. To end slavery for African Americans

43. Many people opposed ratification of the Constitution without a bill of rights because they

a. were afraid the states would be too powerful without a bill of rights
b. thought that a bill of rights would strengthen the President's power
c. did not want the national government to have an army
d. feared that the new national government would deny people their rights

44. What is the purpose of the Bill of Rights?

a. To say how much Americans should pay in taxes
b. To protect freedoms like freedom of speech
c. To describe the jobs of the President and Congress
d. To make Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States


45. What is one of the basic purposes of government in the United States?

a. To protect the rights of individuals
b. To have fire drills in public buildings
c. To elect a new President every four years
d. To keep criminals in federal prisons


46.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

46. According to the passage, the most important purpose of government is to protect

a. people from harm
b. the church
c. the truth
d. people's rights


47.

In your town, some of the citizens want to remove certain books from the public library because they think the books contain material that is harmful for children to read. Other citizens in the town want to keep the books in the library.

47. What argument could be used to defend the opinion that the books should be kept in the library?

A. Democracy depends on the free expression of many different opinions.
B. Democracy depends on allowing communities to vote on what can be read.
C. Democracy depends on the smartest people deciding what books should be read.
D. Democracy depends on limiting access to books.


48. What are both citizens and noncitizens legally entitled to in the United States?

A. To run for public office
B. To have a United States passport
C. To have the protection of our laws
D. To vote in primary elections


49 --

Questions 49 refer to the Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution below. You may refer to the Bill of Rights as you answer the questions, but you do not need to read it before you read the questions.
AMENDMENT 1. RELIGION, SPEECH, ASSEMBLY, PETITION
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
AMENDMENT 2. RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
AMENDMENT 3. QUARTERING OF SOLDIERS
No Soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
AMENDMENT 4. SEARCHES AND SEIZURES
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
AMENDMENT 5. GRAND JURIES, DOUBLE JEOPARDY, SELF-INCRIMINATION, DUE PROCESS, EMINENT DOMAIN
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
AMENDMENT 6. CRIMINAL COURT PROCEDURES
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
AMENDMENT 7. TRIAL BY JURY IN COMMON-LAW CASES
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
AMENDMENT 8. BAILS, FINES, AND PUNISHMENT
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
AMENDMENT 9. RIGHTS RETAINED BY THE PEOPLE
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
AMENDMENT 10. RIGHTS RESERVED TO THE STATES
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

49. As a whole, the Bill of Rights mostly addresses the rights of

A. states
B. individuals
C. cities
D. public officials

50.
Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities . . . may be equal, deprive children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe that it does.

To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely on the basis of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status and community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely to ever be undone. . . . Whatever may have been the extent of psychological knowledge at the time of Plessy v. Ferguson, this finding is amply supported by modern authority. Any language in Plessy v. Ferguson contrary to this finding is rejected.
We conclude that in the field of public education, the doctrine of separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.

50. Which part of the United States Constitution did the Court most likely use to support its decision?

A. Article 4
B. The Tenth Amendment
C. The Thirteenth Amendment
D. The Fourteenth Amendment

51.

According to the European theory, men are divided into classes—some to toil and earn, others to seize and enjoy. According to the Massachusetts theory, all are to have an equal chance for earning. Vast and overshadowing private fortunes are among the greatest dangers to which the happiness of the people in a republic can be subjected.
The main idea set forth in the creeds of some political reformers, or revolutionizers, is, that some people are poor because others are rich. This idea supposes a fixed amount of property in the community, which, by fraud or force, or arbitrary law, is unequally divided among men. But education creates or develops new treasures, treasures not before possessed or dreamed of by anyone.

51. The passage implies that poor people will improve their lives through

A. violent revolution
B. nonviolent resistance
C. studying and learning
D. union organization


52. Who was the Fourteenth Amendment designed to protect?

A. Women
B. Urban laborers
C. Former slaves
D. Entrepreneurs


53.

According to the European theory, men are divided into classes—some to toil and earn, others to seize and enjoy. According to the Massachusetts theory, all are to have an equal chance for earning. Vast and overshadowing private fortunes are among the greatest dangers to which the happiness of the people in a republic can be subjected.
The main idea set forth in the creeds of some political reformers, or revolutionizers, is, that some people are poor because others are rich. This idea supposes a fixed amount of property in the community, which, by fraud or force, or arbitrary law, is unequally divided among men. But education creates or develops new treasures, treasures not before possessed or dreamed of by anyone.

53. Mann suggests that universal public education can prevent the

A. accumulation of private wealth
B. formation of a rigid and permanent class system
C. need for public charity
D. formation of stable republican government


54. The United States issued the Open Door policy (1899–1900) primarily to

A. bring democratic government to the Chinese people
B. secure equal trade opportunities in China
C. force China to change its immigration policies
D. use China as a stepping stone to trade with Japan

55. In the 1850s, the phrase “Bleeding Kansas” was used to describe clashes between

A. proslavery and antislavery groups
B. Spanish landowners and new American settlers
C. Chinese and Irish railroad workers
D. Native American Indians and white settlers









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